KR2021Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and ReasoningProceedings of the 18th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

Online event. November 3-12, 2021.

Edited by

ISSN: 2334-1033
ISBN: 978-1-956792-99-7

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Published by

Copyright © 2021 International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization

Somebody Knows

  1. Thomas Ågotnes(University of Bergen, Norway, Southwest University, China)
  2. Yì N. Wáng(Sun Yat-sen University, China)


  1. Reasoning about knowledge, beliefs, and other mental attitudes
  2. Computational aspects of knowledge representation
  3. KR and autonomous agents and multi-agent systems
  4. Inconsistency- and exception tolerant reasoning, paraconsistent logics


Several different notions of group knowledge have been extensively studied in the epistemic and doxastic logic literature, including common knowledge, general knowledge (everybody-knows) and distributed knowledge. In this paper we study a natural notion of group knowledge between general and distributed knowledge: somebody-knows. While something is general knowledge if and only if it is known by everyone, this notion holds if and only if it is known by someone. This is stronger than distributed knowledge, which is the knowledge that follows from the total knowledge in the group. We introduce a modality for somebody-knows in the style of standard group knowledge modalities, and study its properties. Unlike the other mentioned group knowledge modalities, somebody-knows is not a normal modality; in particular it lacks the conjunctive closure property. We provide an equivalent neighbourhood semantics for the language with a single somebody-knows modality, together with a completeness result: the somebody-knows modalities are completely characterised by the modal logic EMN extended with a particular weak conjunctive closure axiom. We also show that the satisfiability problem for this logic is PSPACE-complete. The neighbourhood semantics and the completeness and complexity results also carry over to logics for so-called local reasoning (Fagin et al. 1995) with bounded ``frames of mind'', correcting an existing completeness result in the literature (Allen 2005).