KR2023Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and ReasoningProceedings of the 20th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

Rhodes, Greece. September 2-8, 2023.

Edited by

ISSN: 2334-1033
ISBN: 978-1-956792-02-7

Sponsored by
Published by

Copyright © 2023 International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization

Interactive Explanations by Conflict Resolution via Argumentative Exchanges

  1. Antonio Rago(Imperial College London)
  2. Hengzhi Li(Imperial College London)
  3. Francesca Toni(Imperial College London)


  1. Argumentation
  2. Explainable AI


As the field of explainable AI (XAI) is maturing, calls for interactive explanations for (the outputs of) AI models are growing, but the state-of-the-art predominantly focuses on static explanations. In this paper, we focus instead on interactive explanations framed as conflict resolution between agents (i.e. AI models and/or humans) by leveraging on computational argumentation. Specifically, we define Argumentative eXchanges (AXs) for dynamically sharing, in multi-agent systems, information harboured in individual agents’ quantitative bipolar argumentation frameworks towards resolving conflicts amongst the agents. We then deploy AXs in the XAI setting in which a machine and a human interact about the machine’s predictions. We identify and assess several theoretical properties characterising AXs that are suitable for XAI. Finally, we instantiate AXs for XAI by defining various agent behaviours, e.g. capturing counterfactual patterns of reasoning in machines and highlighting the effects of cognitive biases in humans. We show experimentally (in a simulated environment) the comparative advantages of these behaviours in terms of conflict resolution, and show that the strongest argument may not always be the most effective.