KR2023Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and ReasoningProceedings of the 20th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

Rhodes, Greece. September 2-8, 2023.

Edited by

ISSN: 2334-1033
ISBN: 978-1-956792-02-7

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Copyright © 2023 International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization

Mathematical Foundations for Joining Only Knowing and Common Knowledge

  1. Marcos Cramer(TU Dresden)
  2. Samuele Pollaci(Vrije Universiteit Brussel)
  3. Bart Bogaerts(Vrije Universiteit Brussel)


  1. Reasoning about knowledge, beliefs, and other mental attitudes


Common knowledge and only knowing capture two intuitive and natural notions that have proven to be useful in a variety of settings, for example to reason about coordination or agreement between agents, or to analyse the knowledge of knowledge-based agents. While these two epistemic operators have been extensively studied in isolation, the approaches made to encode their complex interplay failed to capture some essential properties of only knowing. We propose a novel solution by defining a notion of μ-biworld for countable ordinals μ, which approximates not only the worlds that an agent deems possible, but also those deemed impossible. This approach allows us to define a multi-agent epistemic logic with common knowledge and only knowing operators, and a three-valued model semantics for it. Moreover, we show that we only really need biworlds of depth at most ω²+1. Based on this observation, we define a Kripke semantics on a canonical Kripke structure and show that this semantics coincides with the model semantics. Finally, we discuss issues arising when combining negative introspection or truthfulness with only knowing and show how positive introspection can be integrated into our logic.