KR2022Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and ReasoningProceedings of the 19th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

Haifa, Israel. July 31–August 5, 2022.

Edited by

ISSN: 2334-1033
ISBN: 978-1-956792-01-0

Sponsored by
Published by

Copyright © 2022 International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization

Public and Private Affairs in Strategic Reasoning

  1. Nathanaël Fijalkow(CNRS, LaBRI, University of Bordeaux)
  2. Bastien Maubert(University of Naples Federico II)
  3. Aniello Murano(University of Naples Federico II)
  4. Sasha Rubin(The University of Sydney)
  5. Moshe Vardi(Rice University)


  1. KR and autonomous agents and multi-agent systems
  2. KR and game theory
  3. Reasoning about actions and change, action languages
  4. Reasoning about knowledge, beliefs, and other mental attitudes


Do agents know each others’ strategies? In multi-process software construction, each process has access to the processes already constructed; but in typical human-robot interactions, a human may not announce its strategy to the robot (indeed, the human may not even know their own strategy). This question has often been overlooked when modeling and reasoning about multi-agent systems. In this work, we study how it impacts strategic reasoning.

To do so we consider Strategy Logic (SL), a well-established and highly expressive logic for strategic reasoning. Its usual semantics, which we call “white-box semantics”, models systems in which agents “broadcast” their strategies. By adding imperfect information to the evaluation games for the usual semantics, we obtain a new semantics called “black-box semantics”, in which agents keep their strategies private. We consider the model-checking problem and show that the black-box semantics has much lower complexity than white-box semantics for an important fragment of Strategy Logic.